Antonopoulou, S., McNally, C. and Byrne, G. (2017). 'The effect of braiding parameters on the performance of braided BFRP composites for concrete reinforcement', in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Composites Testing and Model Identification (CompTest2017), KU Leuven, Belgium, April 05-07.
This study focuses on exploring the potential of braided Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer reinforcement through design optimisation and evaluation of their structural performance. Braided BFRP preforms with different configurations were produced changing key braiding parameters in order to achieve the desired structural geometry and meet the performance characteristics of existing rebar reinforcement. Following from that, successful epoxy resin impregnation trials in regular and spiral configurations confirmed the possibility of manufacturing braided BFRP composites in complex shapes. Moreover, a theoretical numerical approach based on Classical Laminate Theory (CLT) has been developed to determine the stiffness properties of manufactured braided composites, calculating the effective longitudinal in-plane modulus of each braided sample. The relation between geometrical factors and processing conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of the braided rebars was clearly observed. Future plans include assessment of the manufacturing process for improved rebar design, advanced material analysis and characterization tests combined with experimental validation of the developed numerical approach. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) models will be developed for braided BFRP composites in order to assess the relation between braiding parameters and rebar performance.
For capacity evaluation, the structural assessment of existing structures is necessary. Concrete strength is an important parameter for such assessment. Non-destructive tests (NDTs) are used along with the traditional approach of core testing for strength assessment of concrete in existing structures. The low reliability of NDT results leads to uncertainty in assessing concrete strength. A new method of non-destructive testing is presented in this paper with the aim of achieving better reliability and reducing uncertainty in the assessment of mortar strength. This approach is based on a modified pullout of post-installed screw anchors. The technique involves a pushin mechanism for a steel screw inside the mortar where a void underneath the screw is left to allow for the uninterrupted movement of the screw inside the concrete. The failure pattern involves local crush-ing of concrete between the threads of the screw. This paper investigates the load bearing behaviour of threaded screws installed in cement mortar under compressive loading. The results supports the application of the tech-nique in the assessment of compressive strength of mortar. The main parameters affecting the pushin behaviour are presented and their effects are discussed. It is planned to extend the test program to concrete in the future.
Teixeira, R., O'Connor, A.J., Nogal, M., Nichols, J. and Spring, M. (2017), 'Structural probabilistic assessment of offshore wind turbine operation fatigue based on Kriging interpolation', in Proceedings of 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2017), Portoroz, Slovenia, June 18-22.
Zou, G., Banisoleiman, K. and Gonzalez, A. (2017), 'Development of probabilistic fracture mechanics method for fatigue life prediction based on EIFS concept', in Proceedings of the ASEM 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2017), Trondheim, Norway, June 25-30.
Huseynov, F., Brownjohn J. M. W., O’Brien E.J. and Hester, D. (2016). 'Analysis of load test on composite I-girder bridge', in Proceedings of the CSHM-6: Structural health monitoring of new and ageing infrastructure, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, May 26-27. (Selected within best papers)
The proposed approach combines a number of aspects. Firstly, a probabilistic bridge load model is established based on Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) data to mimic a realistic traffic flow and hence, the loads and their effects on the bridge. Traffic loading is highly correlated as the same vehicles influence many parts of the bridge. This has a significant influence on the probability of failure.
To model the resistance of the bridge a probabilistic approach is used and full correlation between segments is assumed. Combining the load and resistance models, the probability of failure can be inferred. In the future work the bridge safety model, more precisely the resistance model, will be updated. Bayesian updating will be used in the current framework based on the information obtained from specific damage indicators.
This study aims at obtaining valuable information regarding the importance of the different aspects of bridge safety models and the sensitivity of the probability of failure (i.e. the level of safety) to them. It is also expected to confirm the applicability of a Bayesian approach to this problem. -> Link to full text in repository
The present work investigates the use of vibrars and maximum peak-to-peak accelerations as parameters of damage and performance evaluation in existing bridges and also as a way to predict long-term performance during the initial design stage. To achieve this, a database of the most common Brazil-ian bridge types was analyzed, whose structural de-sign and dynamic parameters are known. Measured traffic data and material properties were integrated into calibrated FEA models and a fatigue assessment was conducted.
A damage index compiled by Kim et al. (2005) was used to assess damage based on dynamic property variation and the general structural condition of the bridges, observed during detailed inspections. Measured vibration was subsequently assessed against the damage index and an additional reliability index to assess the bridges’ fatigue safety. This resulted in a clear correlation between maximum peak-to-peak accelerations and the indices; however, vibration intensity, measured in vibrars as suggested by ABNT-NBR-15307 (2005), did not produce good correlation with the indices. Not only worse correlation was observed in the case of vibrars, but also a tendency of damage decreasing with increasing vibrars, which is not reasonable. As a final result, from the observed correlations, limits of maximum peak-to-peak acceleration are proposed to be considered in existing and newly designed bridges to certify an acceptable long-term condition and safety against fatigue effects. -> Link to full text in repository
Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas – ABNT 2005. Ensaios não destrutivos – Provas de cargas dinâmicas em grandes estruturas – Procedimento. NBR 15307.
Kim, T.H., Lee, K.M., Chung, Y.S. & Shin, H.M. 2005. Seismic damage assessment of reinforced concrete bridge columns. Engineering Structures. Vol.27, No.11, pp 576-592.
Koch, H.W. 1953. Determining the effects of vibration in buildings, V.D.I.Z., Vol. 25, N. 21, pp. 744-747.
Steffens, R.J. 1974. Structural vibration and damage. – Building Research Establishment. London.
Barrias, A., Casas, J.R., Rodriguez, G. and Villalba, S. (2017), 'UPC—BarcelonaTech experience on the use of Rayleigh based distributed optical fiber sensors for SHM of concrete structures', in Proceedings of 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2017), Portoroz, Slovenia, June 18-22.
Rodríguez, G., Casas, J.R., Villalba, S. and Barrias, A. (2016), 'Monitoring of shear cracking in partially prestressed concrete beams by distributed optical fiber sensors' in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS 2016), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, June 26-30.
Several experiences have demonstrated the feasibility of using OFDR theory and SWI technique in the structural monitoring of concrete structures (Villalba and Casas 2013, Rodriguez et al 2015). In the specific case of detection, location and control of cracking in concrete structures, OBR system is an attractive monitoring tool. In the evaluation of shear crack pattern, the inclination of the cracking pattern is an additional unknown property. Two PPC beams named I1 and I2, were tested using DOFS grids as measuring alternative to check the proposed structural monitoring method.
According to the preliminary results obtained in this paper, the use of DOFS is a feasible methodology to obtain important information in the study of shear structural behavior in concrete structures. Continuous strain data at different loading levels were obtained with high spatial resolution by OBR system. Using this data, detection and location of flexural and shear cracks were obtained without requiring prior knowledge of the cracked zone.
Finally, in the evaluation of the shear crack pattern, not only crack initiation and location are of importance, but also crack width, shear crack angles and shear sliding displacements along the cracks have to be measured to evaluate the shear performance of a structural element. -> Link to full text in repository
Villalba S. and Casas J. 2013. Application of optical fiber distributed sensing to health monitoring of concrete structures. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 441-451.
Rodríguez G., Casas J., and Villalba S. 2015. Cracking assessment in concrete structures by distributed optical fiber. Smart Materials and Structures, 24, 1-11.
In this field, the use of fiber optic sensors has been studied, discussed and practiced with encouraging results. These sensors present several advantages when compared with the more traditional and used electric sensors, such as their immunity to electromagnetic interferences and corrosion, their ability to withstand high temperatures and their small dimensions and light weight just to name a few. Furthermore, with distributed fiber optic technology it’s possible to measure virtually any point along a single fiber allowing for truly distributed sensing measurements with great spatial resolution. The possibility of understanding and monitor the distributed behaviour of extensive stretches of critical structures it’s an enormous advantage that distributed fiber optic sensing provides to SHM systems. These distributed fiber optic sensors (DOFS) when bonded or embedded in the structural material works as its nervous system and for all these reasons, it is acknowledged as the most promising fiber optic sensing technique.
In the past decade, several R&D works have been performed with the goal of improving the knowledge and developing new techniques associated with the application of DOFS in order to widen the range of applications of these sensors and also to obtain more correct and reliable data. This paper presents, after a brief introduction to DOFS, the latest developments related with the improvement of these products as long as a review of their diverse applications on structural health monitoring with special focus on engineering structures. -> External link to publisher’s version -> Link to full text in repository
Numerous works presenting information regarding the study of the potential of these sensors have been published in the last decade (Rodríguez et al. 2015 a,b; Palmieri & Schenato 2013) but very few showcase their application to real world structures. One of the various advantages of this technology is the easy installation to real life structures and the variety of them that can be instrumented with it. In both studied instrumentations the used fiber is based on a type of fiber optic in which the wavelength is established and compatible with a commercial data acquisition system. Each section of optical fiber has a maximum length of 50 meters and the union between the fiber and structural element (concrete/masonry) was performed using a twocomponent type epoxy adhesive. A coating of a polymer (polyimide) was used to protect the fiber against scratches and environmental attack.
Due to their particularities, each one of these structures underwent changes in their structural behavior without, nevertheless, ceasing to serve their purpose, i.e. accommodating patients in the case of the Sant Pau Hospital and the passage of vehicles and pedestrians in the case of Sarajevo bridge thanks to the application of these sensors. With the results obtained in this work, the OBR theory associated with DOFS proved its reliability in SHM of civil engineering applications and continues to showcase the promising future of monitoring systems based on this technology. -> Link to full text in repository
Palmieri, L. & Schenato, L., 2013. Distributed optical fiber sensing based on Rayleigh scattering. The Open Optics Journal, 7(1).
Rodríguez, G., Casas, J.R. & Villaba, S., 2015. Cracking assessment in concrete structures by distributed optical fiber. Smart Materials and Structures, 24(3), p.35005.
Rodríguez, G., Casas, J.R.. & Villalba, S., 2015. SHM by DOFS in civil engineering : a review. Structural Health Monitoring and Maintenance, 2(4), pp.357–382.
The aim of this paper is to present the latest developments in the use of an instrumented vehicle called the Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD). A large axle load is applied to the pavement under the TSD. The deflection caused by this axle load is measured using several Doppler lasers. In the first step, the velocity of the deflection of the pavement is measured which can be shown to be proportional to the slope of the deformed profile. The pavement deflection is calculated in the second step using an integration model. A Winkler model is used to simulate the pavement behaviour under the axle load and the TSD is represented as a half-car model. The TSD is shown to be an effective tool for pavement damage detection. -> Link to full text in repository
A finite element (FE) model of a simply supported beam interacting with a moving half car is used in this study. Damage is represented as a loss of stiffness in several parts of the bridge. Vertical displacements are generated at a moving reference for healthy and damaged states, corresponding to vehicle location on the bridge. Two options are explored, the first axle and the second one, as the locations to fix the simulated sensor on the vehicle. -> Link to full text in repository
sion that road pavement surface conditions influence fuel consumption of the considered truck fleet. Then, a multiple linear regression for the prediction of fuel consumption was generated. The model shows that evenness and macrotexture can impact the truck fuel consumption by up to 3% and 5%, respectively. It is a significant impact which confirms that, although the available funding for pavement maintenance is limited, the importance of limiting GHG emissions, together with the economic benefits of reducing fuel consumption are reasons to improve road condition (Zaabar & Chatti, 2010).
Fuel efficiency depends on a wide range of factors, including vehicle characteristics, road geometry, driving pattern and pavement condition. The latter has been addressed, in the past, by many studies showing that a smoother pavement improves vehicle fuel efficiency. A recent study estimated that road roughness affects around 5% of fuel consumption (Zaabar & Chatti, 2010). However, previous studies were based on experiments using few instrumented vehicles, tested under controlled conditions (e.g. steady speed, no gradient etc.) on selected test sections. For this reason, the impact of pavement condition on vehicle fleet fuel economy, under real driving conditions, at network level still remains to be verified.
A 2% improvement in fuel efficiency would mean that up to about 720 million liters of fuel (~£1 billion) could be saved every year in the UK. It means that maintaining roads in better condition could lead to cost savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Modern trucks use many sensors, installed as standard, to measure data on a wide range of parameters including fuel consumption. This data is mostly used to inform fleet managers about maintenance and driver training requirements. In the present work, a ‘Big Data’ approach is used to estimate the impact of road surface conditions on truck fleet fuel economy for many trucks along a motorway in England. Assessing the impact of pavement conditions on fuel consumption at truck fleet and road network level would be useful for road authorities, helping them prioritize maintenance and design decisions. -> Link to full text in repository
This paper introduces a three-dimensional reconstruction experiment based on a physical laboratory-based experiment on a brick wall. Using controlled shooting distances and angles, different images sets were captured and processed with a structure from motion based technique, which can reconstruct 3D models based on multi-view, Two-Dimensional (2D) images. Those 2D geometries are shown to generate significant deformations within the resulting point cloud, especially where there were large angles (with respect the camera position and the wall’s normal direction) and at close distances to the wall’s surface. This paper demonstrates that by overlapping different flawed image sets, the deformation problem can be minimised.